The first automobiles in history were those powered by steam from the 18th century. Although already in century XVII the Belgian Jesuit Ferdinand Verbiest (1623-1688), resident in China, invented a vehicle of wood, which, was impelled to steam, of small size. But the first functional "car" was the so-called "Fardier", created by the French engineer Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot (1725-1804) in the year 1769.In 1860, Belgian engineer Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir (1822-1900), patented the first vehicle by gasoline internal combustion engine.
The displacement of the vehicle occurs through a fluid that is air. This fluid opposes the movement of the vehicle through a resistance that is a function of the vehicle's shape and speed. To reduce aerodynamic drag, the manufacturers design the bodies in a sharp way and place attachments (in the form of skirts or ailerons) that improve the penetration or increase the force of the vehicle on the ground. Reducing aerodynamic drag improves maximum speed, reduces consumption and air noise on the body. The aerodynamics of a vehicle is a function of its front surface in contact with air and its coefficient of friction Cx, determined experimentally depending on the shapes of the body. The pressure exerted by the air on the body should not alter the center of gravity of the vehicle (moving towards the front of the vehicle) so that ailerons are placed to prevent that movement. In some vehicles the active ailerons are placed, which start operating at a certain speed when the center of gravity is displaced.
Property of liquids to evacuate the air that is in the form of bubbles inside. This property is very important in the oils used in the lubrication systems especially in areas where it works at high pressure (crankshaft bearings and crankshafts, lubrication of the turbo) or in the oils of hydraulic systems (power steering). This property is a function of the base oil and is not varied with additives.
Elements are placed at the entrance of the engine intake circuit and serves to collect the impurities that the air has before entering the interior of the cylinder. It consists of a sheet of paper held in a metal or plastic frame. The filter element is the paper that collects the small particles of dust or sand that are in suspension in the air and that are very abrasive. In sports engines, the air filter has less filtering capacity allowing air to pass more freely. In some vehicles it is even eliminated completely.
The rotation of the mobile elements of the engine (crankshaft, pistons and rods) creates inertial forces due to the reciprocating movement of the piston. The first-order inertial forces are produced at the same frequency of rotation of the crankshaft and are eliminated by means of the crankshaft counterweights. The second inertia forces occur at twice the frequency of the crankshaft and are eliminated by balancing shafts. The forces of inertia depend on the number of cylinders and the distribution of them.